Sleep: Essential for Mind-Body Health

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The average human, and that includes you, needs between 7 and 8 hours of sleep each night. But are we doing that? Most are not. Many adults and children are spending more time awake late at night studying, working or just having too much fun. Fun is good, but if you’re pulling a late nighter in party-town, better compensate on the other end with a sleep in.

The problem is, all those late nights add up and may be slowly killing you. Sorry to be a downer, but it’s true. More than 20 years of research shows us that sleep is vitally important to physical and mental health. We’re just talking about nodding off during your boring staff meeting or yawning throughout the day, we’re talking some serious health risks.

Most of what we know about how sleep affects our health comes from studies of what happens to the mind and body when we don’t sleep enough, or not at all. Animal and Human studies show that living with little sleep for even a few months can result in… serious illness and even death. Sleeping less than 7 hours a night on a regular basis is associated with increased risk for Diabetes, Heart Disease and Stoke, Depression, Colds and Flu, Obesity, and unnecessary car accidents.

If you dozed off while reading this, no offense taken. Go take a nap… you need it.

Read on, my fellow sleepy heads, and learn!

Sleep affects brain chemistry and has an important role in the functioning of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. During sleep we develop and reinforce neural pathways involved in memory, learning, and emotion. New research suggests sleep helps flush toxins from the brain.

While we are sleeping, the body manufactures hormones that repair damage caused by stress and the environment in which we work and play. Growth hormone cleanses the liver, builds muscle, breaks down fat, and helps normalize blood sugar. We also produce hormones that help fight infections. If we aren’t getting sufficient sleep, we get sick more often and take longer to recover. Lack of sleep increases inflammation, which is has been linked to heart disease and stroke.

Skimping on shut-eye is linked with obesity in adults and children. Lack of sleep interferes with the levels of ghrelin and leptin, metabolic hormones that signal when you’re hungry and when you’re full.

The amount of sleep you need varies based on age, activity level, quality of sleep, and genetics (e.g., some of us really are night owls). Infants typically require 14-15 hours of sleep per 24-hour period; young children about 12 hours; teens about 9 hours, and most adults 7-9 hours. A general rule of thumb for determining your sleep requirement: If you do not wake feeling refreshed, you may not be getting enough sleep.

Tips For A Good Night’s Sleep

In the sack for sleep and sex only. So don’t use your time between the sheets to deal with daily hassles–take that outside of the bedroom (or record in a journal). If you don’t feel sleepy, leave the room and do something relaxing until you feel drowsy. Then, go back to bed.

Set a sleep schedule. This includes a soothing pre-sleep routine, such as a warm bath, reading or gentle yoga. Go to bed and wake at the same time each day. This entrains your body rhythms, making it easier to fall asleep. If you need a nap, get it in before 5:00 PM; limit to 20 minutes.

Surround yourself with cave-like ambiance. A sleeping space should be quiet, dark, and cool (between 60-72°). If you do shift-work, use blackout shades or an eye mask. Remove electronic devices, computers and TVs from your room. Research shows that use of digital devices within an hour of bedtime has a negative effect on sleep quality.

Let the light in early and exercise regularly. Natural light helps regulates hormones that promote ideal sleep-wake patterns. Open the curtains as early as possible and get outdoors during the day. Also, exercise during the day or early evening makes it easier to fall asleep and increases the amount of deep sleep obtained.

Eat a Light, Last Meal of the Day. A light dinner eaten 2-3 hours before sleep is ideal. A full stomach interferes with sleep as the body works at digestion. Steer clear of spicy or fatty foods that can cause heartburn. If you need a bedtime snack, combine a carbohydrate and protein, such as almond butter on toast, Greek yogurt with sugar-free granola, or cheese and crackers. Avoid products containing caffeine, sugar or nicotine as their effects can last several hours.

Are You Sleep Deprived?

You don’t have to pull “all-nighters” to become sleep deprived. A sleep debt of just 1-2 hours a few nights a week can affect your health and performance.To become fully well-rested and regain energy after a sleep debt, get an extra hour of sleep each night for one week.

The following are signs of sleep deprivation, and know that there are natural approaches to getting your sleep back on track.

Daytime drowsiness; fatigue
Poor memory; difficulty concentrating
Changes in appetite
Difficulty dealing with stress
Irritability
Muscle tension; impaired vision
Increase in accidents or clumsiness

Photo Credit Phase4Photography/bigstockphoto.com

References:

Harvard Health. Sleep: What’s in it for You? http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/need-sleep/whats-in-it-for-you/health%3E%22http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/need-sleep/whats-in-it-for-you/health

Strickgold, R. Sleep on It! Scientific American. October 2015. 313(4): pp. 52-57.

Brondel, L., Romer, M., Nougues, P., Touyarou, P., and Davenne, D. 2010. Acute partial sleep deprivation increases food intake in healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (6): 1550-1559.

National Sleep Foundation. 2009. How much sleep do we really need? http://www.sleepfoundation.org/article/how-sleep-works/how-much-sleep-do-we-really-need

Chang, A., et al., Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Dec 2014). 112:4, 1232-1237. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/4/1232.full.pdf

Harvard Health. Consequences of Insufficient Sleep. http://healthysleep.med.harvard.edu/healthy/matters/consequences

Van Cauter, E. & Knutson, KL. ìSleep and the Epidemic of Obesity in Children and Adults. European Jl of Endocrinology. 59(1) pp. S59-S66. http://www.eje-online.org/content/159/suppl_1/S59.short

Rechtschaffen, A. & Bergmann, BM. Sleep Deprivation in the Rat: Update of the 1989 Paper. Sleep. 2002. 25(1): pp. 18-24. http://www.journalsleep.org/Articles/250104.pdf

Knutson KL, et al. Role of Sleep Duration and Quality in the Risk and Severity of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Archives of Internal Medicine. 2006 Sep 18; 166(16):1768.

Gottlieb DJ, et al. Association of Sleep Time with Diabetes Mellitus and Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Archives of Internal Medicine. 2005 Apr 25; 165(8): 863.

King, CR et al. Short Sleep Duration and Incident Coronary Artery Calcification, JAMA, 2008: 300(24): 2859-2866. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19109114

Opp, MR, et al. Neural-Immune Interactions in the Regulation of Sleep, Front Biosci. 2003 May 1;8:d768-79.

Cohen S, et al. Sleep Habits and Susceptibility to the Common Cold, Arch of Intern Med. 2009 Jan 12; 169 (1):62-67.

Colten, HR & Altevogt, BM, eds. Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press 2006: 3. ìExtent and Health Consequences of Chronic Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK19961/

Spiegel K, et al. Impact of Sleep Debt on Metabolic and Endocrine Function, Lancet. 1999 Oct 23: 354(9188): 1435-9.

Zeng, Yawen et al. ìStrategies of Functional Foods Promote Sleep in Human Being.  Current Signal Transduction Therapy 9.3 (2014): 148ñ155. PMC. Web. 16 Oct. 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4440346/

Figueiro M, Bierman A, Plitnick B, Rea M. ìPreliminary evidence that both blue and red light can induce alertness at night. BMC Neuroscience. 2009;10(1):105.

National Sleep Foundation: Sleep Depression & Anxiety https://sleepfoundation.org/excessivesleepiness/content/the-complex-relationship-between-sleep-depression-anxiety

National Institutes of Health: Signs and Symptoms of Problem Sleepiness
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sdd/signs

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